百姓快3

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2018年中国光伏产业发展现状分析及未来发展前景预测

发布时间:

2022-08-08 15:09

将硅片加工为太阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)池,是实现光(guang)电(dian)(dian)转换为核心的(de)步(bu)骤。太阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)池制造(zao)环节是资本(ben)和技术(shu)双(shuang)密(mi)集(ji)型行业, 要求企业及时跟进新的(de)电(dian)(dian)池制造(꧃zao)技术(shu)以(yi)提(ti)升(sheng)电(dian)(dian)池效率,太阳(yang)能电(dian)(dian)池的(de)转换效率越高(gao),生产成本(ben)越低,越有利于(yu)太阳(yang)能发(fa)电(dian)(dian)

系统的(de)应(ying)用。根(gen)据所用材(cai)料的(de)不同(tong),太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)可分(fen)为(wei)(wei)三(san)大类(lei)(lei):第(di)(di)一类(lei)(lei)为(wei)(wei)晶(jing)体硅(gui)太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),包括(kuo)(kuo)单晶(jing)硅(gui)和多(duo)晶(jing)硅(gui);第(di)(di)二类(lei)(lei)为(wei)(wei)薄膜太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),包括(kuo)(kuo)硅(gui)基薄膜、化(hua)合(he)物类(lei)(lei)以(yi)及有(you)机(ji)类(lei)(lei);第(di)(di)三(san)类(lei)(lei)为(wei)(wei)新型太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),包括(kuo)(kuo)叠层太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)、多(duo)带隙太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)以(yi)及热(re)载流子(zi)太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)等(deng)。由于化(hua)合(he)物类(lei)(lei)、有(you)机(ji)类(lei)(lei)薄膜太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)存在原(yuan)材(cai)料稀缺或者有(you)毒以(yi🌌)及转换(huan)效率低、稳定性差等(deng),而第(di)(di)三(san)代太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技术上尚(shang)未成(cheng)熟(shu),因(yin)此目(mu)前应(ying)用较多(duo)的(de)太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)主要包括(kuo)(kuo)单晶(jing)硅(gui)、多(duo)晶(jing)硅(gui)以(yi)及非晶(jing)硅(gui)薄膜太(tai)(tai)阳(yang)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)。

太阳能电池分类

从各类太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)市场(chang)(chang)份(fen)额(e)的(de)(de)变化来看, 多晶(jing)硅(gui)的(de)(de)高性(xing)价比使其(qi)保持(chi)了(le)良好(hao)的(de)(de)市场(chang)(chang)占(zhan)有(you)(you)(you)率(lv)(lv)(lv),尤其(qi)在(zai) 2014 年(nian)(nian)(nian)、 2015 年(nian)(nian)(nian)占(zhan)比提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)十分(fen)显著,而单晶(jing)硅(gui)和薄膜太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)市场(chang)(chang)份(fen)额(e)占(zhan)比有(you)(you)(you)所下(xia)降。但这一(yi)状(zhuang)况在(zai) 2016 年(nian)(nian)(nian) 2 月份(fen)发生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)了(le)改(gai)变。受益于(yu)单晶(jing)硅(gui)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)本的(de)(de)下(xia)降与国(guo)家“领跑者计划”的(de)(de)推动, 单晶(jing)硅(gui)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)在(zai)国(guo)内的(de)(de)市场(chang)(chang)占(zhan)有(you)(you)(you)率(lv)(lv)(lv)持(chi)续(xu)提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)。2015 年(nian)(nian)(nian)全(quan)(quan)球单晶(jing)市场(chang)(chang)份(fen)额(e)约为 18%,2016 年(nian)(nian)(nian)大幅提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)至 24%左右, 2017 年(nian)(nian)(nian)有(you)(you)(you)望进(jin)一(yi)步提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)至 30%以上。光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)伏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)转(zhuan)换(huan)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(lv)(lv)为电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)企业(ye)的(de)(de)核心竞争(zheng)力。在(zai)“十二”五期间,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)伏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)制造业(ye)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)进(jin)步不断加(jia)快,产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)质量(liang)位居世(shi)界(jie)前列,商业(ye)化产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)品(pin)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(lv)(lv)平(ping)(ping)均(jun)每(mei)年(nian)(nian)(nian)提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)约 0.3~0.4%。截至 2017 年(nian)(nian)(nian) 7 月,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)规(gui)模化的(de)(de)单晶(jing)硅(gui)和多晶(jing)硅(gui)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)转(zhuan)换(huan)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(lv)(lv)11平(ping)(ping)均(jun)分(fen)别达到(dao) 19.8%和 18.5%。未来光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转(zhuan)换(huan)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(lv)(lv)的(de)(de)提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)主(zhu)要依靠制备技术(shu)(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)更(geng)新换(huan)代。在(zai)过去十年(nian)(nian)(nian)中,丝(si)网印刷(shua)全(quan)(quan)铝(lv)背场(chang)(chang)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(Al-BSF)占(zhan)据着光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)伏电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)市场(chang)(chang)。这种(zhong)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)由于(yu)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)良好(hao),生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)本较低(di),直到(dao) 2020 年(nian)(nian)(nian)将保持(chi)其(qi)领先(xian)地位。然而,随着制备技术(shu)(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)进(jin)步,其(qi)他高效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)会对其(qi)带来竞争(zheng)压(ya)力。目(mu)前,具备大规(gui)模生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)应用基础的(de)(de)高效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)包(bao)括(kuo) PERC(Passivated Emitterand RearContact , 钝 化 发 射 极(ji)(ji) 及 背 接 触 电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian) 池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi) )、 PERT (Passivated Emitterand RearTotally-Diffused Ceꦯll,钝化发射极(ji)(ji)背面全(quan)(quan)扩散(san)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)) 、 HIT(Hetero-junction withIntrinsic Thin-layer,本征薄膜异(yi)质结电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi))、 IBC(Interdigitated Back Contact,指叉(cha)型背接触电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi))等(deng)。目(mu)前,成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)熟(shu)的(de)(de)高效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)为 PERC 技术(shu)(shu)(shu)。 PERC 电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)仅需在(zai)现(xian)有(you)(you)(you)全(quan)(quan)铝(lv)背场(chang)(chang)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)上增(zeng)加(jia)两道(dao)工艺, 相较于(yu)其(qi)他高效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),容(rong)易在(zai)现(xian)有(you)(you)(you)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)线(xian)(xian)基础上升(sheng)(sheng)级改(gai)造,潜(qian)在(zai)综合成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)本低(di),较容(rong)易实现(xian)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)业(ye)化。截至 2017 年(nian)(nian)(nian) 7 月,采用 PERC 电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)的(de)(de)单、多晶(jing)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转(zhuan)换(huan)效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)率(lv)(lv)(lv)12能(neng)(neng)够(gou)分(fen)别提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)至 20.5%和 19%。目(mu)前,晶(jing)科能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)、阿特斯、天合光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)能(neng)(neng)、 晶(jing)澳太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)、 乐叶光(guang)(guang)(guang)(guang)伏及 SolarWorld、 韩华 QCells 等(deng)都陆续(xu)增(zeng)加(jia) PERC 产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)能(neng)(neng)。此外(wai), HIT、 IBC 等(deng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)也代表了(le)高效(xiao)(xiao)(xiao)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)发展(zhan)方向。我(wo)(wo)国(guo)已经成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)功超越欧洲、日本,成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)为世(shi)界(jie)太阳(yang)(yang)能(nenꦰg)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)第一(yi)大国(guo)。 2016年(nian)(nian)(nian),我(wo)(wo)国(guo)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)超过 49GW,同比增(zeng)长 19.5%以上,占(zhan)世(shi)界(jie)太阳(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)量(liang)的(de)(de) 71.01%,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)技术(shu)(shu)(shu)不断进(jin)步,生(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)(chan)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)本持(chi)续(xu)下(xia)降。

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